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8051 Microcontroller By Subrata Ghoshal Pdf Free ((LINK)) Download


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8051 Microcontroller: A Comprehensive Guide by Subrata Ghoshal


The 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular and widely used microcontrollers in embedded system design. It has a simple architecture, a rich instruction set and a versatile interfacing capability. In this article, we will explore the features and applications of the 8051 microcontroller, based on the books by Subrata Ghoshal.


Internal Architecture of the 8051 Microcontroller


The 8051 microcontroller is an 8-bit device with a 16-bit address bus and an 8-bit data bus. It has four register banks, each containing eight general-purpose registers (R0-R7) and a program status word (PSW) register. The PSW register contains the flags for arithmetic and logical operations, as well as the bank select bits. The 8051 microcontroller also has a special function register (SFR) area, which contains various control and status registers for the peripherals and interrupts. The SFR area is mapped to the upper 128 bytes of the data memory space.


The 8051 microcontroller has two types of memory: program memory and data memory. The program memory is used to store the instructions and constants for the program execution. The data memory is used to store the variables and temporary data for the program execution. The program memory can be either internal or external, depending on the type of the 8051 microcontroller. The internal program memory is usually ROM or EPROM, with a size of 4 KB or 8 KB. The external program memory can be up to 64 KB, and can be accessed through a special pin called PSEN (Program Store Enable). The data memory can also be either internal or external, depending on the type of the 8051 microcontroller. The internal data memory is usually RAM, with a size of 128 bytes or 256 bytes. The external data memory can be up to 64 KB, and can be accessed through a special pin called EA (External Access).


Instruction Set of the 8051 Microcontroller


The instruction set of the 8051 microcontroller consists of about 250 instructions, which can be classified into five categories: data transfer, arithmetic, logical, branching and bit manipulation. The instructions can operate on various types of operands, such as registers, immediate values, direct addresses, indirect addresses and bit addresses. The instructions have different lengths, ranging from one byte to three bytes. The instructions have different execution times, ranging from one cycle to four cycles.


The data transfer instructions are used to move data between registers, memory locations and ports. Some examples of data transfer instructions are MOV (move), PUSH (push onto stack), POP (pop from stack), XCH (exchange) and SWAP (swap nibbles).


The arithmetic instructions are used to perform arithmetic operations on registers or memory locations. Some examples of arithmetic instructions are ADD (add), SUB (subtract), MUL (multiply), DIV (divide), INC (increment) and DEC (decrement).


The logical instructions are used to perform logical operations on registers or memory locations. Some examples of logical instructions are ANL (and), ORL (or), XRL (exclusive or), CPL (complement) and RL (rotate left).


The branching instructions are used to alter the program flow based on certain conditions or addresses. Some examples of branching instructions are SJMP (short jump), LJMP (long jump), AJMP (absolute jump), ACALL (absolute call), RET (return), JZ (jump if zero) and JNB (jump if not bit).


The bit manipulation instructions are used to manipulate individual bits in registers or memory locations. Some examples of bit manipulation instructions are SETB (set bit), CLR (clear bit), JB (jump if bit) and MOV C (move carry).


Interfacing Techniques for the 8051 Microcontroller


The 8051 microcontroller has four ports for interfacing with external devices: P0-P3. Each port has eight pins that can be configured as input or output pins. The ports can also be used for special functions, such as address lines, data lines, serial comm




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