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Developmental Disability

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esther nyaboke
esther nyaboke

A Brief History Of Human Brain Mapping Pdf Free

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With these new imaging techniques, researchers interested in the function of the human brain were presented with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the neurobiological correlates of human behaviors. This opportunity along with prescient early support from the combined resources of the James S. McDonnell Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts contributed significantly to the development of the field of cognitive neuroscience, a field of research that combines the experimental strategies of psychology with various techniques to actually examine how brain function supports mental activities.

The subject matter of these developments has been generally well received by the scientific community and the general public. This relates not only to the scientific importance of the work itself but also to the fact that the subject matter of cognitive neuroscience touches on subjects of importance to everyone (e.g., normal as well as disordered memory, attention, language, motivation, emotion, decision making, and even consciousness). In addition, the imaging data produced by cognitive neuroscientists are often quite intriguing; observing the brain of another human at work seems to fascinate scientists and nonscientists alike.

Despite these successes, some researchers have questioned the ability of this approach to provide analyses of brain function that are sufficiently refined to truly enlighten us about the relationship between human behavior and brain function (Nichols and Newsome, 1999). One of the keys to evaluating such concerns is the ability to relate work in cognitive neuroscience and imaging to that which parallels it in other areas of neuroscience.

This miniseries is composed of six papers. They cannot be expected to provide an exhaustive review of all that is new and important. The field of cognitive neuroscience is already too large and moving to fast to permit that. Rather, these papers were solicited because they provide important evidence, in a number of areas, which is relevant to an understanding of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain imaging in humans. Before turning to some brief introductory comments about the papers that make up this miniseries, some general remarks about functional imaging seem appropriate.

With this prescient admonition in mind, the task of functional brain imaging becomes clear: identify multiple regions and their temporal relationships associated with the performance of a well designed task. The brain instantiation of the task will emerge from an understanding of the elementary operations performed within such a network. The great strength of functional brain imaging is that it can contribute uniquely to such a task by providing a broad and detailed view of the processing architecture of cognitively engaged networks. Importantly, this can be accomplished in the brain of most interest to us, the human brain.

In reading the papers in this miniseries it will be important for the reader to note that here as well as elsewhere, imaging data are rich in content as reflected in complex spatial and temporal patterns of activity changes (both increases and decreases) that underlie even the most constrained behaviors of interest to cognitive neuroscientists (hardly the picture portrayed by the early phrenologists). Unraveling the elementary operations instantiated in such networks will be a challenge for all levels of neuroscience. It is fair to say that functional brain imaging, using increasingly sophisticated experimental and analytical strategies and ever more powerful imaging devices, will contribute significantly to this important enterprise in studies of humans as well as experimental animals.

These two papers make several important points. First, there are many correspondences between neurophysiological results in nonhuman primates and imaging results in humans as reflected in the systems responding to specific stimuli and cognitive manipulations. Second, the neurophysiological an


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